Media convergence is the merging of mass communication outlets – print, television, radio, the Internet along with portable and interactive technologies through various digital media platforms. White, Livingston A. “Reconsidering Cultural Imperialism Theory,” TBS Journal 6 (2001), http://www.tbsjournal.com/Archives/Spring01/white.html. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. [6] Jenkins, Henry. Johnson, Steven Everything Bad Is Good for You (Riverhead, NY: Riverhead Books, 2005). Broadband has and will continue to become an increasing part of citizens’ day to day life, enabling commerce, education, health care, governance, and other social goods. Altogether, this makes studies of media convergence, both its approaches and its results, highly relevant for the understanding of the digital creative economy. 13 March 2009. Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isn’t an end result (as is the hypothetical black box), but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produced. I Diverge,” Technology Review, June 2001, 93. Economic convergence is when a single company has interests across many kinds of media. economic convergence meaning: a process in which economies of different countries become more similar to each other: . “This Is Not a Mixtape,” Pitchfork, February 22, 2010, http://pitchfork.com/features/articles/7764-this-is-not-a-mixtape/2/. It erodes long-established media industry and content “silos” and increasingly uncouples content from particular devices, which in turn presents major challenges for public policy and regulation. Why does this phenomenon occur? But convergence hasn’t erased old technologies; instead, it may have just altered the way we use them. The merging of internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies. A cell phone that also takes pictures and video is an example of the convergence of digital photography, digital video, and cellular telephone technologies. Whose argument do you find more compelling and why. Review the viewpoints of Henry Jenkins, Steven Johnson, and Nicholas Carr. How about a street-side pay phone? For example, Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation is involved in book publishing (HarperCollins), newspapers (. These factors have allowed media conglomerates to own different kinds of media (e.g., TV and radio stations and newspapers) in the sam… Further, convergence refers to the blurring High Concept. “Convergence? Hogan, Marc. When countries with lower levels of GDP per capita catch up to countries with higher levels of GDP per capita, the process is called convergence. If media conglomerates reward that demand, viewers will feel greater mastery and investment; deny it, and they stomp off in disgust.[5]. 4. Media technological convergence is the tendency that as technology changes, different technological system sometimes evolve toward performing similar tasks. Reading is not an active, participatory process; it’s a submissive one (Johnson, 2005).”. Media convergence can mean one of two things: Either the merging of previously distinct media technologies resulting from digitization and computer networking–some of which are covered elsewhere in this article–or an economic strategy in which the media properties owned by communications companies employ digitization and computer networking to work together. Poking fun at alarmists who see every new technology as making children stupider, Johnson jokingly cautions readers against the dangers of book reading: It “chronically understimulates the senses” and is “tragically isolating.” Even worse, books “follow a fixed linear path. Convergence is the movement of the price of a futures contract towards the spot price of the underlying cash commodity as the delivery date approaches. Cultural convergence is when stories flow across several kinds of media platforms and when readers or viewers can comment on, alter, or otherwise talk back to culture. Economic convergence in media (ownership) Paper instructions: Instructions: 1. Broadband has the potential to transform social, economic and business growth. Describe the five types of convergence identified by Henry Jenkins and provide an example of each type that you’ve noted in your own experience. Each response should be a minimum of one paragraph. [4] As a result, many corporations have discovered that creating emotional attachment to a product yields more responsive and loyal consumers. Economic convergence occurs when a company controls several products or services within the same industry. Carr worries that the vast array of interlinked information available through the Internet is eroding attention spans and making contemporary minds distracted and less capable of deep, thoughtful engagement with complex ideas and arguments. When you need brief, factual information, when was the last time you reached for a volume of Encyclopedia Britannica? Name the five types of convergence identified by Henry Jenkins. http://pitchfork.com/features/articles/7764-this-is-not-a-mixtape/2/, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/20/education/20wired.html, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/opinion/20sun4.html1, http://www.tbsjournal.com/Archives/Spring01/white.html, Next: 1.5 The Role of Social Values in Communication, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The distinctive Polaroid look—caused by uneven color saturation, underdevelopment or overdevelopment, or just daily atmospheric effects on the developing photograph—is emphatically analog. Tags: Uncategorized, Click the icon to the right of a paragraph, Click the icon to the right of the page title (works the same as paragraphs), Transmedia Storytelling in Television 2.0, is this ARG? “The Fictional Institutions of Lost: World Building, Reality, and the Economic Possibilities of Narrative Divergence.” Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit Television Show. London: IB Tauris, 2009. Before going any further, it is important to understand the relationship between convergence and divergence because the two processes are inextricably linked. Transmedia storytelling One way that professional media has engaged with media convergence is through transmedia storytelling, in which stories are told across multiple platforms. Innovations are constantly being diffused into goods and many are becoming an integral part of products. And third, government deregulation. Cultural Convergence. It usually involves a process that decouples content from media, allowing the same story or entertainment to exist in multiple forms. Some theorists believe that convergence and new-media technologies make people smarter by requiring them to make decisions and interact with the media they’re consuming; others fear the digital age is giving us access to more information but leaving us shallower. All of these habits, formerly common parts of daily life, have been rendered essentially obsolete through the progression of convergence. Today’s teenagers aren’t passively sitting in front of screens, quietly absorbing information. Such a cultural sea change causes a significant generation gap between those who grew up with new media and those who didn’t. Economic Convergence: Media Consolidation 1 Many scholars and critics have noted that media ownership is controlled by an increasingly smaller number of mega-corporations. [1] Robert McChesney has argued that media ownership threatens our democracy. 15 January 2003. New York Times, editorial, “The Half-Life of Phones,” New York Times, June 18, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/opinion/20sun4.html1. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. Convergence has transformed who uses these media and for what purposes, but it hasn’t eliminated these media. Then, answer the following questions. 24 May 2007. Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. The two prices must converge, or … Identify examples of convergence in contemporary life. How the media interacts with the society today. But convergence isn’t just limited to technology. [7] Johnson sees “divergent narratives” as a more appropriate term to describe narratives extending not just through digital content, but also through newspapers, novels, magazines, and spaces of everyday life. This risks instilling a general passivity in our children, making them feel as though they’re powerless to change their circumstances. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. In higher-income countries… Polaroid Corporation, creators of the once-popular instant-film cameras, was driven out of business by digital photography in 2008, only to be revived 2 years later—with pop star Lady Gaga as the brand’s creative director. The first one is the key role of the demand for entertainment. Technological convergence is the merging of technologies such as the ability to watch TV shows online on sites like Hulu or to play video games on mobile phones like the Apple iPhone. Dispersing content across a wide range of delivery channels (divergence) ensures multiple points of entry into a single media franchise (convergence). Twenty-first century media culture is increasingly marked by convergence, or the coming together of previously distinct technologies, as in a cell phone that also allows users to take video and check e-mail. Paul Keller – nigerian VCDs at kwakoe – CC BY 2.0. Similarly, dispersing narrative information across a wide range of channels (divergence) encourages consumers to pull together all the information and form a unified story (convergence). Economic convergence in recent years has been most visible in company mergers. (See also Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration). First, digitization. In nearly all the settings we consider, the consumer demand for media content is largely due to demand for entertainment, with the economic impacts emerging as a by-product. Several Apple iPhone apps allow users to apply effects to photos to make them look more like a Polaroid photo. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999. Organic convergence is multimedia multitasking, or the natural outcome of a diverse media world. You can’t control their narratives in any fashion—you simply sit back and have the story dictated to you…. Economic convergence ■ Market convergence and regulatory convergence The term market convergence means merging of telecommunication, information technology and media markets. Justin Wyatt describes such marketable content in High Concept, arguing that the most lucrative franchises are those claiming a cast of stars, a distinctive style, and an easily digestible premise. Take cassette tapes and Polaroid film, for example. Understanding Media and Culture by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Carr, Nicholas The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: Norton, 2010). For example, in the entertainment industry a single company may have interests across many kinds of media. A 2010 study by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that Americans aged 8 to 18 spend more than 7.5 hours with electronic devices each day—and, thanks to multitasking, they’re able to pack an average of 11 hours of media content into that 7.5 hours (Lewin, 2010). Greenberg, Andy. politics, economics, sport, and so on, for column inches in these printed media; so far, so straightforward. New digital media technology and services are considered as central drivers of creative industries. Jenkins’s concept of organic convergence is perhaps the most telling. Global convergence is the process of geographically distant cultures influencing one another despite the distance that physically separates them. “Star Wars' Galactic Dollars.” Forbes.com. Such actions are enabled by media convergence, the process by which previously distinct technologies come to share tasks and resources. 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