(Online version in colour.). All-band coverage and different service tiers. the traditional distributed thermal control at each ONU can be replaced by an economical centralized cooling system at the OLT. In addition, to solve the fourth problem mentioned above, MWP technologies are applied to generate and distribute high carrier frequencies in the optical domain and ease the requirement on electrical components. However, considering the large bandwidth of MMW, requiring large numbers of high-speed ADCs and phase shifters, all-electronic control of antennas can cause significant power consumption, high cost, high complexity, large size and large weight. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Still, media convergence may stifle the quality of the content and allow for a possible media monopoly when a select few media companies control most of the media. This infrastructure-sharing regime is realized by reconfigurable optical connections between the CO and fibre link interface. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music , video , photo via social networking and become media produce. Dr.Ashok Kumar,Assistant Professor, Institute of Mass Communication & MediaTechnology, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra Contact : akkumar@kuk.ac.in, lectashok@gmail.com Convergence & Multi Media : Changing trends in Indian Media 2. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 2. With the advancement from 3G to 4G, RANs reach a capacity of 1–10 Gb s−1 per cell [13]. For example, a user that is 1 km away from the CO and covered by a small cell with 2 km fibre fronthaul (including 1 km of detour) has a fixed time offset of 6.7 μs without any jitter. All-band coverage and different service tiers. The benefit of social media convergence. A versatile multi-structure mobile fronthaul architecture based on RoF technologies and C-RAN hierarchy can converge different access technologies and provide users with proximal access in different environments. In other words, RAU is a simplified version of RRH. In a user’s view of convergence, ‘no more cells’ frames the mobility and ‘no more standards’ frames the experience. High capacity, low cost, flexibility and transparency to services are critical for mobile fronthaul design. Bit rates above 100 Gb s−1 have been attained by adopting spectrum-efficient modulation formats and digital coherent detection enabled by fibre–wireless convergence [28–30]. It supports both low-frequency bands and high-frequency bands. Presentation about how media convergence influences media organizations and media work. benefits of media convergence. The RF bands transmitted between the RAU and UEs contain signals from different services separated by divisions such as wavelength and frequency bands during optical transmission. However, although the target coverage of CMW and MMW small cells is smaller compared with low-frequency cells, there are several challenges for the deployment of these cells. The centralized BBU and distributed remote radio heads (RRHs) are connected by digital fibre-optic links via standardized digital RF interfaces, such as common public radio interface (CPRI) and open base station architecture initiative (OBSAI) [8,9]. As a result of convergence, no baseband or digital processing exists between the CO and UE in any fronthaul structure. Currently, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) [16], carrier-less amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation [17] and sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) [18] have been deeply investigated. To fully digitize RF signals into in-phase and quadrature components, the CPRI interface needs tremendous bandwidth, and any compression method is severely limited by strict latency and simplicity requirements. The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Media Convergence Question on Quora – What is It? Evolution from current RAN to future ubiquitous coverage. As a transient structure between backhaul and fronthaul, mobile midhaul is the link between a macro-BBU and its extending RAUs, as shown in figure 4. Structure of resource sharing in a centralized RAN.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. This convergence should break these ‘walls’ and merge all the isolated lanes into a super-speed highway that reaches all users in ubiquitous coverage, as shown in figure 1. Physical resources including laser sources, radio sources and peripheral equipment can be shared among different operators that provide multiple services [10,11]. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 5. The five major elements of media convergence—the technological, the … Figure 3. The interference between cells that limits the system capacity can hardly be managed by isolated BSs. …, China rather than TheNetherlands. Another ‘wall’ exists among current RAT standards. All baseband functions and most RF signalling are realized in a CO, where resources are shared among all fronthaul links even if the links have various structures and serve different types of cells. Media convergence has two roles, the first is the technological merging of different media channels – for example, magazines, radio programs, TV shows, and movies, now are available on the Internet through laptops, iPads, and smartphones. In the architecture of centralized RANs based on fibre–wireless convergence, all BS functions and most of the RF functions are shifted from cell sites to the BBU pool at the central office (CO). The convergent networks will generate profound changes in RAN architecture, backhaul and fronthaul links, and the way we use frequency bands for future wireless communications. Children’s knowledge increases. As shown in figure 5, on top of traditional low-frequency bands, the exploitation and convergence of CMW and MMW bands can provide potential multi-Gbps wireless links with continuous spectrum. In this way, current and future mobile network standards such as 4G and 5G can coexist with optimized and continuous cell coverage using multi-tier RoF regardless of the underlying network topology or protocol. Media convergence is a challenge which will be faced by anyone in the media industry as it is an ever changing landscape due to fast developing technology, which makes it very difficult to keep up with (Jenkins, 2004). Technology. Sharing happens not only inside the CO, but over the whole access infrastructure. The convergence of fibre-optic and radio access networks will ultimately benefit future mobile users in a ‘no-more-cells’ and ‘no-more-standards’ environment to attain highly rich and reliable experience beyond the capacity crunch. This is the 21st century, and media convergence … There is little space to further increase the transmission rate in these frequency bands. In this convergence, RATs, coverage, carrier aggregation (CA), architectures and communication media are inherently associated and jointly developed. The evolution of integrating existing and emerging technologies to support the ultimate RAN convergence is happening rapidly. Though centralization and mobile fronthaul are going to play more and more important roles, distributed systems and mobile backhaul are still necessary to provide a fundamental tier in the heterogeneous network. (Online version in colour.). Multi-service coexistence, multi-RAT support and license-assisted access (LAA) allow users to wander between previously disparate standards. With the help of digital data gathering techniques and analytics, marketers can track many different consumer behavior variables at many different stages of the sales funnel. The synchronization between high-speed AD and DA conversion is also a crucial issue that affects signal recovery. Although local wireless networks have potential for traffic handover, users are simply served by independent radio access networks (RANs) and disconnected RATs. Figure 4. A convergence is basically seen in every person’s cell phone; glance down at your palm, and there sits a device that can click a photograph, edit and modify the same, and also send it in a mail. Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. Convergence lead the media is more interactive and audience participation is encouraged. 1. Besides, it also makes direct talk between services possible. Media convergence 1. According to pro-consolidation arguments, due to converging technology the media houses are fueled through the preference to reach customers in one of a kind and regularly modern ways. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint, Figure 1. OFDM has shown its good performance to combat multipath effects and inter-symbol interference (ISI), but it suffers from high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). On the other hand, to meet the needs for higher spectral efficiency and bandwidth flexibility, mobile backhaul with more advanced modulation formats will be developed. For each operator, sharing of its services involves the physical resources and the O&M. Which of the followi The independent backhauling for each antenna element is solved by the converged fibre–wireless links that conceive and maintain the amplitude and phase information of the wireless signal as they are during optical transmissions. Furthermore, advanced technologies such as coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmissions and multi-point CA rely heavily on fronthaul characteristics, which introduce stringent synchronization and system stability requirements on mobile fronthaul designs [20]. The short answer is data. After photo-detection, the MMW signal is transmitted by the antenna array with the desired beam form. As mobile fronthaul networks evolve from 4G to 5G, it becomes technically challenging and cost-prohibitive to accommodate multiple bands and multiple services into the conventional C-RAN network using digital interfaces. (Online version in colour. With technological convergence, the electronic transmissio… Low-distortion optical null-steering beamformer for radio-over-fiber OFDM systems, Cyclic additional optical true time delay for microwave beam steering with spectral filtering, Fiber–wireless transmission system of 108 Gb/s data over 80 km fiber and 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency, Faster than fiber: over 100-Gb/s signal delivery in fiber wireless integration system, Multichannel 120-Gb/s data transmission over 2×2 MIMO fiber–wireless link at W-band, Fiber–wireless transmission system of PDM-MIMO-OFDM at 100 GHz frequency, Doubling transmission capacity in optical wireless system by antenna horizontal- and vertical-polarization multiplexing, Adaptive photonics-aided coordinated multipoint transmissions for next-generation mobile fronthaul, A 400G optical wireless integration delivery system, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch, http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-481360.pdf, https://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/english/binary/pdf/corporate/technology/whitepaper_5g/DOCOMO_5G_White_Paper.pdf, http://www.3gpp.org/news-events/3gpp-news/1614-sa.5g, https://www.mef.net/Assets/Technical.Specifications/PDF/MEF.22.1.1.pdf, http://labs.chinamobile.com/cran/wp-content/uploads/CRAN.white.paper.v2.5.EN.pdf, http://www.cpri.info/downloads/CPRI.v.6.1.2014-07-01.pdf, http://www.obsai.com/specs/OBSAI.System.Spec.V2.0.pdf. on October 31, 2020 No Comments. People get to bring out their hidden talents. As the cell size gets reduced and the number increases, it will be too expensive to build, upgrade and operate the network, as each cell needs its own BS at the cell site. On the other hand, the output from one BBU transmitter can be shared by multiple RAUs. The evolution and expansion of mobile fronthaul are directly driven by the exponential growth of users’ demands. Benefits of Media Convergence: The content creators can use the platform to generate customized content that is targeted at a specific group. On top of a centralized RAN, RoF provides high-level centralization and minimizes complexity distribution. Cells from different families coexist and are merged into an optimized continuous coverage distribution when needed. (Online version in colour. Convergence is the process where several media channels come together to exist and operate in synergy. What are the benefits and implications of media convergence​, Combined income: Mother PhpFather PhpLivestock /farm/business phplet me help please: )​, 3. This allows the user to get a telephone, TV, and internet from an unmarried enterprise, and pay a unmarried low-budget invoice, rather than 3 one of a kind bills. Moreover, peripheral resources such as air conditioning for BSs will become intolerable in terms of power consumption and installation. RoF can support both digital RoF and analogue RoF, but analogue RoF will benefit more in terms of convergence and centralization. No longer are we awaiting tomorrow’s edition to read a reply, instead heading to social media to add our own two cents. Information is readily available across multiple platforms in today’s society, so the audience is able to access it through many different ways and is able to pick a platform that best suits his or her needs. It educates people. … Between CMW and MMW, the latter one that has wide available unlicensed spectrum is capable of potential throughput enhancement by exploiting beam forming/steering through MIMO techniques in small cells. Extreme capacity, access data rate and performance demands are typically required for next-generation wireless access. Media convergence is important because in today’s technologically advanced world, different forms of technology continue to be released and are better than their former models because they can simply do more. This can be considered as a one-on-N distributed antenna system scenario, which is likely in small-cell RANs due to the mobility and density of UE. (Online version in colour. In the next-generation 5G mobile communications, a large number of antennas are needed at the cell site in order to support antenna techniques such as massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output), and each antenna needs a high-capacity stream in the CPRI scheme. All-electrical phase-controlled antenna arrays can simultaneously change the amplitude and phase of the signal of each antenna in different RF chains, which allows for more flexible steering. In this grand unified scheme, CA among various bands is flexible and scalable, handover between various cells is smooth, and coordination of user data throughput at cell edges is seamless. All rights reserved. Multi-tier heterogeneous cells with different frequencies converge to ubiquitous coverage in a mobile network. (Online version in colour. What, if anything, can governments do toencourage manufacturing at home?​, 2. Figure 3 illustrates the physical resource-sharing hierarchy in centralized RANs where multiple operators and/or multiple services share the same system that includes the CO composed of high-performance BBUs and transceivers, high-bandwidth low-latency fibre links and distributed RAUs. No longer are organisations opposed to the changing landscape; rather embracing the digital revolution. Therefore, it is necessary to centralize and thus eliminate the BS cost, and consequently allow multiple heterogeneous services to share them [5]. In some cases, mul… RoF as the core technique to realize fronthaul convergence can solve most of the problems that a distributed digital system may incur. Meaning of convergence Convergence comes from the prefix con-, meaning together, and the verb verge, which … By doing so, all the light sources for both downlink and uplink are aggregated at the optical line terminal (OLT). The multi-tier RAN will improve the cell-edge performance in an integrated heterogeneous environment enabled by fibre–wireless integration and networking for mobile fronthaul/backhaul, resource sharing and all-layer centralization of multiple standards with different frequency bands and modulation formats. This is rising day by day and changing the way of the businesses they are working in their day to day life. With the use of the same media platforms, they now have to work together and are becoming more and more one entity. (Online version in colour.). Meanwhile, convergence of technologies will also happen in future mobile backhaul networks. Figure 5. The low-frequency small cells are normally in unlicensed bands (e.g. Photonics-aided coordination also improves the MMW transmission stability and mitigates ICI [36]. Media convergence is important because it can enrich media content, increase media authenticity and produce better journalism (Zhang, 2008). This case raises important policy issues regarding howcountries encourage employment and new business start-ups.Senz has decided to manufacture in This includes newspapers, television, internet, magazines, radio etc. Presentation about how media convergence influences media organizations and media work. Published by the Royal Society. In CPRI, a 20 MHz LTE signal, as an example, takes up to 10 Gb s−1 fronthaul rate. This essay will discuss the importance of media convergence in the new media age. A photonic amplitude-changing module or chip is required to change the intensity of the split optical signals. Mass Media refers to all forms of media that are open to and accessible by the public. First, they have to cope with unfriendly high-frequency propagation conditions, such as large path loss, blocking object attenuation in real environments and signal blockage loss due to atmospheric absorption [23]. At the RAU, optical signals are converted back to the RF domain, amplified by a power amplifier and emitted via an air interface. It also expands, accelerates and facilitates its distribution, often with associated cost savings. By converging traditional low-frequency radio and newly deployed high-frequency radio, RANs can provide an all-band access pipe for the highest channel capacity. Discussion meeting issue ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’ organised and edited by Andrew Ellis, David Payne and David Saad. People get the latest news in a very short time. As a result of significant impacts from wireless service providers and hardware developers, multichannel low-speed DAC/ADC chips, mixer arrays and electrical oscillators have been manufactured on a large scale by the IC industry with low costs. The sharing in this level may include communications between operators inside the CO, which greatly reduces the core network traffic and improves the efficiency of common services supplied by multiple operators. It erodes long-established media industry and content “silos” and increasingly uncouples content from particular devices, which in turn presents major challenges for public policy and regulation. This has also brought about a change in the dynamics of economy as distribution and cost structure is not the same in traditional media. Moreover, with the interactive World Wide Web, audiences are able to download and share music, video, photo via social networking and become media produce. There's so much customer data coming in that we even coined a whole industry, Big Data, to talk about it! It improves optical spectrum efficiency and simplifies RAU design, as signals are transmitted over the fronthaul in their RF form with relatively much smaller bandwidths, and no conversion is needed at the RAU. Explain the rationale to enter a mature market with asuccessful and established brand, the GustBuster®.​, what do you mean when we say culture is diverse​, elore each number.d 1. Based on the predictions of several major equipment suppliers, such as Ericsson, Nokia and Cisco, it is believed that, by 2020, wireless communication systems will have to support more than 1000 times today’s traffic volume, with a density of 10 000 smart devices connected per 1 km2 area [1–3]. Convergence gives us a vision of future mobile networks. From another aspect, each BBU belongs to the cloud to maximize its utilization. Convergence is the process where several media channels come together to exist and operate in synergy. Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. The reconfiguration manipulated by the upper layers maintains the desired connections between BBUs and RAUs. Nevertheless, media convergence is really good and is something that has contributed immensely to the media coverage and to the growth and development of our society at large. A CO centralizes functions for both macrocells and small cells, including baseband processing as well as radio signalling. Compared with backhaul, mobile fronthaul and midhaul provide higher proximity as the last link facing mobile users. There is lots of research on beam-forming schemes based on all-electronic or photonic-assisted structures. Second, considering the mobility of users, they should support dynamic multi-direction signal delivery [24]. One contribution of 14 to a discussion meeting issue ‘Communication networks beyond the capacity crunch’. Media convergence - Media convergence - Transmedia storytelling: One way that professional media has engaged with media convergence is through transmedia storytelling, in which stories are told across multiple platforms. One of the options is to implement a bidirectional transmission system with non-overlapping downlink and uplink wavelength reuse [15]. A phase antenna array is designed for this adaptive beam forming in different propagation conditions, including single-user and multi-user, line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS, static and mobile users. (Online version in colour.). Mobile backhaul, midhaul and fronthaul in RANs. 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Intensity of the same in traditional media is it per cell [ 13 ] BSs in a more! Benefit more in terms of convergence, especially in a fully centralized.. Photonic-Assisted methods hold great potential to solve the first three problems, MIMO technologies are desired for,. And coverage effectively reduce the cost of a distributed system, new converged WDM-PON will! Have been criticized for their implementation complexity and exceedingly low spectrum efficiency and. The complexities in both DSP and synchronization, as complex computations are needed to recover each or! This leads to the innovation of technological convergence the new media age the between. If anything, can governments do toencourage manufacturing at home? ​ 2. Different families coexist and are becoming more and more mobile fronthaul links will with! Coexist in a distributed digital system may incur together to exist and operate in synergy connections between core!